Heating and/or cooling of processes in factories is provided by using central systems. While the low temperatures required for the process are provided by the a facility called chiller; the cooling water used in the production process is cooled by using a cooling tower and sent to the production process. Especially in small plants, a hot oil system is preferred instead of saturated steam and hot water to maintain the require temperatures of 250 – 350ºC for process.
If industrial activities are not controlled, they can cause significant environmental problems. Global environmental problems such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, destruction of the ozone layer, acid rain, air/ water / soil pollution, hazardous wastes, sea and ocean pollution without borders endanger the sustainability of the environment and the health of human and other living species.
For this reason, it is obligatory to carry out production activities in accordance with the philosophy of sustainability and to treat the wastes that arise during these activities and cause environmental problems.
On the other hand, the safe operation of a plant is a top priority requirement. The lives of workers in the plant , the sustainability of the processes, and the environment and human health are highly dependent on the safe operation of the plant. Safety becomes even more important, especially in plants that produce hazardous chemicals.
The most important steps in the safety of the facilities are the mechanical designs of the process equipment in accordance with the standards and the automatic inspection of the processes. While various requirements, mechanical, economic and social conditions are taken into account by the designers, safety, production specifications, environmental regulations, operating restrictions must be taken into account. Proper implementation of controls increases the safety and profitability of the facility.
It is extremely important to take measures in maintenance and repair workshops and factories in order to ensure continuity in the facility, prevent accidents, and minimize possible malfunctions.
In this book, information about the design and operation problems of the following utilities is presented and examples of the designs of these facilities are given.
- Steam Generation
- Hot Oil System
- Water Cooling Towers
- Process and Boiler Water Preparation Systems
- Refrigeration System (Chillers)
- Environmental Protection Systems
- Vacuum Systems
- Electricity System and Automation
- Maintenance and Corrosion Prevention
- Safety and Fire Fighting
Utilities in the chemical industries include steam generation, hot oil system, electrical power transformers and electrical distribution panels, air compressors, vacuum system low temperature generators (chiller), water cooling towers, process water, waste removal systems to protect the environment. Also, all activities such as maintenance and repair activities, fire prevention and fighting systems are subject of utilities.